Kenmare is subject to the environmental laws and standards in force in Mozambique, together with international standards and guidelines. Kenmare applies the IFC Performance Guidelines 2012 in a manner appropriate to our operations and we are committed to operating in an environmentally responsible manner.
For more information about this commitment, please read our Environmental Policy.
In 2019, the Moma Mine's environmental monitoring statistics were:
|Total electricity use (million kWh)||207.0||195.7||199.3||191.3|
|Total electricity use from renewable sources (million kWh)||185.4||168.4||187.0||183.5|
|Total electricity use from non-renewable sources (million kWh)||21.6||27.3||12.3||7.8|
|Scope 1 greenhouse gas emissions (tonnes CO2)||78,605||81,511||73,234||65,382|
|Scope 2 greenhouse gas emissions (tonnes CO2)1||110||110||110||110|
|Carbon efficiency per tonne mined (scope 1 tonnes CO2/tonne
of excavated ore)2
|Total fuel consumption (million litres)||24.6||26.9||21.3||17.9|
|Fuel consumption by diesel generators (million litres)||5.9||8.5||4.5||2.1|
|Water extraction (million cubic metres)||18||18||19||21|
|Water usage efficiency (cubic metres of water/tonnes of excavated ore)||0.49||0.53||0.57||0.70|
|Rehabilitation - total (ha)||200||159||292||186|
|Casuarina plantation (ha)||16||21||46||33|
Notes to table: 1. Based on Kenmare's current understanding of our annual, average Scope 2 greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower. These emissions relate to construction activities and decaying biomass from flooded land linked to hydropower facilities. 2. Carbon efficiency per tonne mined is based on scope 1 emissions only.
For more information about Kenmare's environmental performance in 2019, please view our Annual Report 2019.
Environmental Management System
We recognise that protecting the environment in which we operate is fundamental to the running of our business. The principles of pollution prevention, compliance with legal and adopted obligations and continual improvement are integrated into our planning, management systems and daily activities.
Our Environmental Management System (EMS) subscribes to the NOSA Occupational Health, Safety and Environmental Management System and is modelled in accordance with ISO 14001. The objective of the EMS is to facilitate and achieve
compliance with the requirements of our environmental licences, the commitments in our Environmental Policy, as well as continual improvement of environmental performance.
The EMS also sets out the detailed processes for the identification of environmental risks and implementation of action plans to mitigate the impacts of our activities. This involves monitoring to ensure applicable standards are being observed, and where deviations are encountered, that reporting and mitigation take place promptly.
Senior management regularly reports to the Sustainability Committee and the Board on the status of compliance with the Group’s environmental and social obligations, and aims to ensure that the EMS is properly implemented and maintained.
- conduct regular performance reviews and legal compliance audits and act upon the results to ensure compliance with national laws and Company policy;
- provide adequate resources, staff and training so that employees at all levels recognise and are able to fulfil their responsibilities; and
- develop, maintain and test emergency procedures in conjunction with the relevant authorities.
Kenmare is committed to rehabilitating mined land to maximise benefits for local communities and to minimise negative impacts. We do this through continuing to follow our progressive rehabilitation strategy for the restoration of mined-out dredge paths. We use the services of third-party independent specialists on a regular basis to ensure our rehabilitation efforts are delivering the most appropriate future land-use options on a regular basis.
In 2019, an area of 200 Ha was rehabilitated, compared to 159 Ha in 2018. The 2019 rehabilitated area was largely aligned with our five-year rehabilitation plan and operational open area requirements. A total area of 158 Ha was rehabilitated with topsoil, with the natural seed content contributing to the development of mixed trees and grassland rehabilitation. Planting of indigenous trees supplements the development of these areas. A further 16 Ha was planted with 17,678 casuarina trees in 2019, a future commercial forestry crop, using community nurseries to supply saplings. 26 Ha was also converted to wetland.
During 2019, 175 Ha of rehabilitated mined land was returned to our host communities. Further land returns will continue in future years, providing agricultural land for subsistence farming.
The great majority of the waste tailings material comprises sand, silt and clay particles removed from the ore in the WCP. These can be sub-divided into sand tailings (>0.045 mm) and slimes (<0.045 mm), which are collected in a series of hoppers at the back of the WCP. Disposal of sand sized particles is straightforward, these being pumped to the rear of the pond and deposited by means of cyclones which are located on top of a mobile stacker.
Disposal of slimes material is more complex, given the propensity for this size fraction to remain in suspension for longer periods. A significant proportion of the slimes fraction is incorporated between sand grains in the sand tailings and needs no further management. Excess slimes in the tails are allowed to consolidate in settling ponds, and are then pumped as thick slurry to drying cells. Over the following months, the water evaporates from the slurry, leaving low moisture clay that can be easily moved and handled. This material will be placed into the subsoil during rehabilitation of the dredge path, providing benefits for the subsequent revegetation.
Water is an essential resource for our operations, as it is used intensively in both our mining and processing operations. The majority of the water used at Moma is recycled by returning it to the groundwater table from
whence it was drawn as tailings deposition water and mine pond seepage (minus some evaporation).
Water for the Mine is supplied from an aquifer via twelve boreholes and from a lake. The aquifer recharges each year with rainfall.
A water monitoring programme, which has been approved by the Mozambique authorities under a separate document from the EMS, continues to be followed.
Sewage treatment plants have been provided for the MSP, WCPs and accommodation village. The treatment plants each comprise a collector tank and pumping station, aerobic treatment unit, agitated aeration tank and sludge disposal to a sludge digestion pond.
A solid waste disposal facility has been installed, including a lined area for non-inert material.
Hazardous waste is disposed at an approved hazardous waste disposal site.
In 2019, Kenmare’s total electricity use at the Moma Mine was 207.0 million kWh. This represents a 6% increase compared to 2018, driven by the 8% increase in excavated ore during the same period. However, the percentage of electricity derived from non-renewable sources decreased in 2019 to 10% compared to 14% in 2018. As a result, the Mine’s carbon efficiency improved by 13% in 2019 compared to 2018.
The Group’s principal power source is the Cahora Bassa hydroelectrical power station with transmission through the EdM transmission grid. In 2019, 90% of Kenmare’s energy requirement or 185.4 million kWh was produced from this renewable power source (hydropower), compared to 86% in 2018. Kenmare aims to maximise the use of hydropower in its operations as it substantially reduces Kenmare’s greenhouse gas emissions. However, due to the varying reliability of the northern power network in Mozambique, the Mine uses diesel-powered electric generators (6MW capacity) in the summer rainy season to ensure uninterrupted operation of our MSP.
Electricity is used to power the dredges, WCPs, tailings and slimes disposal pumps and MSP, as well as offices and the accommodation village.
Kenmare undertakes a number of environmental compliance programmes to manage and reduce our impact on the environment and our host communities.
This inlclude an air quality monitoring programme designed for the MSP which records ambient meteorological conditions, as well as the primary anticipated pollutants (inhalable particulates, total particulate matter, CO, CO2, NO and SO2). Dust monitoring of all areas were within the specified standards. All the bag-houses at the MSP are operational and no out of standard readings were recorded.
Kenmare undertakes a number of environmental compliance programmes to manage and reduce our impact on the environment and our host communities.Environmental noise monitoring in 2019 returned results that were generally in line with accepted levels. Day time noise levels in excess of the IFC 1-hour guideline of 55dBA were measured in Mtiticoma, Tibane and Topuito, but these were attributable to noise from community sources (such as motor vehicles, motor cycle movement, work activities such as hammering, and music from social gatherings), and not mining activities.
Night time environmental noise levels in excess of the IFC 1-hour guideline of 45dBA were recorded in Topuito, where the noise levels were a combined result of Heavy Mobile Equipment use at the Mineral Separation Plant and community noise (loud music and motor vehicle movement), with community noise as the predominant contributor. This measurement was obtained during one external survey. Environmental noise monitoring efforts will be increased in 2020 to ensure we obtain a more representative picture and to determine whether additional operational controls need to be considered.
The mineral sands mined by Kenmare and our products contain naturally occurring radionuclides. A radiation management plan is in place and occupational exposures remain well within legal exposure limits.
The first two shipments of mineral sands concentrate, which contains monazite, were despatched from Moma in 2019. Due to the monazite content, regulatory and radiation control requirements have been implemented and radiation management remains compliant to national legislation, the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) and IFC Performance Standards (2012).